The Principia: The Authoritative Translation and Guide Book

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The Principia: The Authoritative Translation and Guide

By Sir Isaac Newton
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Univ of California Press
  • Isbn : 9780520964815
  • Pages : 992
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 906
  • File Pdf: the-principia.pdf

Book Summary:

In his monumental 1687 work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known familiarly as the Principia, Isaac Newton laid out in mathematical terms the principles of time, force, and motion that have guided the development of modern physical science. Even after more than three centuries and the revolutions of Einsteinian relativity and quantum mechanics, Newtonian physics continues to account for many of the phenomena of the observed world, and Newtonian celestial dynamics is used to determine the orbits of our space vehicles. This authoritative, modern translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, the first in more than 285 years, is based on the 1726 edition, the final revised version approved by Newton; it includes extracts from the earlier editions, corrects errors found in earlier versions, and replaces archaic English with contemporary prose and up-to-date mathematical forms. Newton's principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system. The illuminating Guide to Newton's Principia by I. Bernard Cohen makes this preeminent work truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students.

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Book Summary:

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Book Summary:

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Here is a lively history of modern physics, as seen through the lives of thirty men and women from the pantheon of physics. William H. Cropper vividly portrays the life and accomplishments of such giants as Galileo and Isaac Newton, Marie Curie and Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, right up to contemporary figures such as Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, and Stephen Hawking. We meet scientists--all geniuses--who could be gregarious, aloof, unpretentious, friendly, dogged, imperious, generous to colleagues or contentious rivals. As Cropper captures their personalities, he also offers vivid portraits of their great moments of discovery, their bitter feuds, their relations with family and friends, their religious beliefs and education. In addition, Cropper has grouped these biographies by discipline--mechanics, thermodynamics, particle physics, and others--each section beginning with a historical overview. Thus in the section on quantum mechanics, readers can see how the work of Max Planck influenced Niels Bohr, and how Bohr in turn influenced Werner Heisenberg. Our understanding of the physical world has increased dramatically in the last four centuries. With Great Physicists, readers can retrace the footsteps of the men and women who led the way.

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The Eighteenth century is one of the most important periods in the history of Western philosophy, witnessing philosophical, scientific, and social and political change on a vast scale. In spite of this, there are few single volume overviews of the philosophy of the period as a whole. The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy is an authoritative survey and assessment of this momentous period, covering major thinkers, topics and movements in Eighteenth century philosophy. Beginning with a substantial introduction by Aaron Garrett, the thirty-five specially commissioned chapters by an outstanding team of international contributors are organised into seven clear parts: Context and Movements Metaphysics and Understanding Mind, Soul, and Perception Morals and Aesthetics Politics and Society Philosophy in relation to the Arts and Sciences Major Figures. Major topics and themes are explored and discussed, ranging from materialism, free will and personal identity; to the emotions, the social contract, aesthetics, and the sciences, including mathematics and biology. The final section examines in more detail three figures central to the period: Hume, Rousseau and Kant. As such The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy is essential reading for all students of the period, both in philosophy and related disciplines such as politics, literature, history and religious studies.

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This book reconstructs key aspects of the early career of Descartes from 1618 to 1633; that is, up through the point of his composing his first system of natural philosophy, Le Monde, in 1629-33. It focuses upon the overlapping and intertwined development of Descartes’ projects in physico-mathematics, analytical mathematics, universal method, and, finally, systematic corpuscular-mechanical natural philosophy. The concern is not simply with the conceptual and technical aspects of these projects; but, with Descartes’ agendas within them and his construction and presentation of his intellectual identity in relation to them. Descartes’ technical projects, agendas and senses of identity shifted over time, entangled and displayed great successes and deep failures, as he morphed from a mathematically competent, Jesuit trained graduate in neo-Scholastic Aristotelianism to aspiring prophet of a systematised corpuscular-mechanism, passing through stages of being a committed physico-mathematicus, advocate of a putative ‘universal mathematics’, and projector of a grand methodological dream. In all three dimensions—projects, agendas and identity concerns—the young Descartes struggled and contended, with himself and with real or virtual peers and competitors, hence the title ‘Descartes-Agonistes’.

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Book Summary:

Five Proofs of the Existence of GodÊprovides a detailed, updated exposition and defense of five of the historically most important (but in recent years largely neglected) philosophical proofs of God's existence: the Aristotelian proof, the Neo-Platonic proof, the Augustinian proof, the Thomistic proof, and the Rationalist proof. Ê This book also offers a detailed treatment of each of the key divine attributes -- unity, simplicity, eternity, omnipotence, omniscience, perfect goodness, and so forth -- showing that they must be possessed by the God whose existence is demonstrated by the proofs.Ê Finally, it answers at length all of the objections that have been leveled against these proofs. Ê This book offers as ambitious and complete a defense of traditional natural theology as is currently in print.Ê Its aim is to vindicate the view of the greatest philosophers of the past -- thinkers like Aristotle, Plotinus, Augustine, Aquinas, Leibniz, and many others -- that the existence of God can be established with certainty by way of purely rational arguments.Ê It thereby serves as a refutation both of atheism and of the fideism which gives aid and comfort to atheism. Ê

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This special anniversary book celebrates the success of this Springer book series highlighting materials modeling as the key to developing new engineering products and applications. In this 100th volume of “Advanced Structured Materials”, international experts showcase the current state of the art and future trends in materials modeling, which is essential in order to fulfill the demanding requirements of next-generation engineering tasks.

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By Robert S. Cohen,J.J. Stachel,Marx W. Wartofsky
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  • File Pdf: for-dirk-struik.pdf

Book Summary:

It is fitting that Professor Dirk Jan Struik be greeted with this melange of mathematical, scientific, historical, sociological and political essays. The authors are also appropriately varied: different countries, outlooks, religions, generations, and we suppose - of course we did not as- different politics too. Many more would have joined us, we know, but the good friends in this book make a fine and representative assembly of the intersection of two (mathematical!) classes: affectionately respect ful admirers of Dirk Struik, and the best thinkers of this troubled century. Struik has been among the most steadfast supporters of the Boston Colloquium for the Philosophy of Science, that discussion group which we have been holding at Boston University since 1960, but his luminous collaboration has been welcome, in Boston and Cambridge, for nearly five decades among mathematicians, physicists, philosophical and political thinkers, and especially among the students. It has not mattered whether they have been his own students or not, whether at M.LT. or elsewhere, whether scholars or dropouts, nature-lovers or book worms, anarchists or Republicans, Catholics or Unitarians, Communists or communists, prim or liberated. No doubt he has his preferences! But the main thing for Struik has been to educate and respect the other person.

Hadrian's Wall and the End of Empire

By Rob Collins
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn : 9781136291418
  • Pages : 232
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 741
  • File Pdf: hadrian-s-wall-and-the-end-of-empire.pdf

Book Summary:

There is no synthetic or comprehensive treatment of any late Roman frontier in the English language to date, despite the political and economic significance of the frontiers in the late antique period. Examining Hadrian’s Wall and the Roman frontier of northern England from the fourth century into the Early Medieval period, this book investigates a late frontier in transition from an imperial border zone to incorporation into Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, using both archaeological and documentary evidence. With an emphasis on the late Roman occupation and Roman military, it places the frontier in the broader imperial context. In contrast to other works, Hadrian’s Wall and the End of Empire challenges existing ideas of decline, collapse, and transformation in the Roman period, as well as its impact on local frontier communities. Author Rob Collins analyzes in detail the limitanei, the frontier soldiers of the late empire essential for the successful maintenance of the frontiers, and the relationship between imperial authorities and local frontier dynamics. Finally, the impact of the end of the Roman period in Britain is assessed, as well as the influence that the frontier had on the development of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria.

Particles and Waves

By Peter Achinstein
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Isbn : 0195345053
  • Pages :
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 629
  • File Pdf: particles-and-waves.pdf

Book Summary:

This volume brings together eleven essays by the distinguished philosopher of science, Peter Achinstein. The unifying theme is the nature of the philosophical problems surrounding the postulation of unobservable entities such as light waves, molecules, and electrons. How, if at all, is it possible to confirm scientific hypotheses about "unobservables"? Achinstein examines this question as it arose in actual scientific practice in three nineteenth-century episodes: the debate between particle and wave theorists of light, Maxwell's kinetic theory of gases, and J.J. Thomson's discovery of the electron. The book contains three parts, each devoted to one of these topics, beginning with an essay presenting the historical background of the episode and an introduction to the philosophical issues. There is an illuminating evaluation of various scientific methodologies, including hypothetico-deductivism, inductivism, and the method of independent warrant which combines features of the first two. Achinstein assesses the philosophical validity of both nineteenth-century and modern answers to questions about unobservables, and presents and defends his own solutions.

The Language of Nature

By Geoffrey Gorham,Benjamin Hill,Edward Slowik,C. Kenneth Waters
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : U of Minnesota Press
  • Isbn : 9781452951850
  • Pages : 384
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 901
  • File Pdf: the-language-of-nature.pdf

Book Summary:

Galileo’s dictum that the book of nature “is written in the language of mathematics” is emblematic of the accepted view that the scientific revolution hinged on the conceptual and methodological integration of mathematics and natural philosophy. Although the mathematization of nature is a distinctive and crucial feature of the emergence of modern science in the seventeenth century, this volume shows that it was a far more complex, contested, and context-dependent phenomenon than the received historiography has indicated, and that philosophical controversies about the implications of mathematization cannot be understood in isolation from broader social developments related to the status and practice of mathematics in various commercial, political, and academic institutions. Contributors: Roger Ariew, U of South Florida; Richard T. W. Arthur, McMaster U; Lesley B. Cormack, U of Alberta; Daniel Garber, Princeton U; Ursula Goldenbaum, Emory U; Dana Jalobeanu, U of Bucharest; Douglas Jesseph, U of South Florida; Carla Rita Palmerino, Radboud U, Nijmegen and Open U of the Netherlands; Eileen Reeves, Princeton U; Christopher Smeenk, Western U; Justin E. H. Smith, U of Paris 7; Kurt Smith, Bloomsburg U of Pennsylvania.

Makers of Western Science

By Todd Timmons
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : McFarland
  • Isbn : 9780786491155
  • Pages : 224
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 189
  • File Pdf: makers-of-western-science.pdf

Book Summary:

Non-scientists often perceive science as a dry, boring vocation pursued by dry, boring people. Contrary to popular perception, science has actually been the product of fascinating people seeking to explain the world around them. From Galileo’s difficulties with the Inquisition, to the quirkiness of Newton, to the iconic figure that was Einstein, this innovative volume chronicles the history of science using extensive passages from the works of the scientists themselves. Who better to appeal to our common sense concerning the truth of a sun-centered universe than Copernicus himself? Kepler expresses in his own words the way in which he awoke to the revelation of elliptical orbits, and Darwin shares his slowly evolving ideas leading to the theory of natural selection. Part biography, part history, this work reveals the personalities behind the world’s most significant scientific discoveries, providing an interesting new perspective on the human endeavor we call science. Instructors considering this book for use in a course may request an examination copy here.

A Quest for Perspectives

By Kameshwar C Wali
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Isbn : 9781783261840
  • Pages : 1448
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 905
  • File Pdf: a-quest-for-perspectives.pdf

Book Summary:

This invaluable book presents selected papers of S Chandrasekhar, co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 and a scientific giant well known for his prolific and monumental contributions to astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics. The reader will find here most of Chandrasekhar's articles that led to major developments in various areas of physics and astrophysics. There are also articles of a popular and historical nature, as well as some hitherto unpublished material based on Chandrasekhar's talks at conferences. Each section of the book contains annotations by the editor. Contents: Volume 1:Early Years — The Theory of White Dwarfs and Stellar InteriorsRadiative Transfer, the Polarization of the Sunlit Sky, and the Negative Ion of HydrogenStochastic and Statistical Problems in AstronomyTurbulence and Hydromagnetic Problems in AstrophysicsHydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic StabilityVolume 2:Ellipsoidal Figures of EquilibriumRelativistic Instabilities and Post-Newtonian ApproximationsThe Mathematical Theory of Black Holes — Colliding WavesThe Nonradial Oscillations of Stars in General RelativityMiscellaneous Writings Readership: Researchers in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Keywords:Astrophysics;Cosmology;Astrophysics;Astronomy;Physics;Applied MathematicsReviews: “It is a great pleasure to dip into Kameshwar Wali's rich selection from the works of the great Chandra, and to read Wali's illuminating comments. In addition to the seminal scientific papers, organized by subject, sometimes establishing whole fields of physics and astronomy, and almost bringing them to conclusion, the volumes include more than 300 pages of ‘semi-popular’ articles and talks (some previously unpublished), whose philosophical depth and beauty of expression would alone recommend these ‘selected works’.” Laurie M Brown Northwestern University “Apart from knowing the works of great scientists, students of science should also learn something about the creative process through which these scientists achieved them. In the case of Chandra, these papers give a glimpse into the mind of a highly methodical person who had identified his goals and worked hard and creatively to get there. For such readers Wali has done a commendable job, for which we should be thankful.” Professor Jayant V Narlikar The Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics “… I am glad to find an opportunity to formulate an encouragement to proceed ahead with Chandra's legacy, and my faith in these new directions of astrophysical research. In forthcoming decades, these superb volumes of collected works ought to play an invaluable role.” Anne Magnon CUST-Blaise Pascal University “Wali's choices in these two volumes are a more selective and more interesting subset, picked as much to give a sense of the man as of the science … Chandra's celebrated Reviews of Modern Physics article ‘Stochastic Problems in Physics and Astronomy’ (1943) alone is worth the price of the volume … Fascinating also are the two 1953 papers by Chandra and Enrico Fermi, the writing of which Chandra later remembered as one of the most exciting experiences of his scientific career.” Physics Today “The latter topic contains some fascinating essays and accounts of interdisciplinary lectures.” Mathematical Reviews

The Army of the Roman Republic

By Mike Dobson
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxbow Books
  • Isbn : 9781782975588
  • Pages : 436
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 199
  • File Pdf: the-army-of-the-roman-republic.pdf

Book Summary:

The main source of archaeological evidence for Late Roman Republican camps is a complex of installations around the Iberian city of Numantia in Spain, excavated by Adolf Schulten in the early 1900s. This book reassesses Schulten and concludes that much of his interpretation is questionable. Radically different alternative reconstructions making use of recent fieldwork are presented for several of the sites. A discussion of dating evidence leads to alternative dates being offered for some of the camps. To aid interpreting the sites, army organisation and art of encampment for the period of the Numantine Wars is discussed. This study gives added importance to the sites at Numantia, for they not only form the main source of archaeological evidence for Late Republican camps, but provide evidence for the form of camp for both the late manipular army and the early cohort one.

The Quantum of Explanation

By Randall E. Auxier,Gary L. Herstein
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Isbn : 9781351792486
  • Pages : 370
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 135
  • File Pdf: the-quantum-of-explanation.pdf

Book Summary:

The Quantum of Explanation advances a bold new theory of how explanation ought to be understood in philosophical and cosmological inquiries. Using a complete interpretation of Alfred North Whitehead’s philosophical and mathematical writings and an interpretive structure that is essentially new, Auxier and Herstein argue that Whitehead has never been properly understood, nor has the depth and breadth of his contribution to the human search for knowledge been assimilated by his successors. This important book effectively applies Whitehead’s philosophy to problems in the interpretation of science, empirical knowledge, and nature. It develops a new account of philosophical naturalism that will contribute to the current naturalism debate in both Analytic and Continental philosophy. Auxier and Herstein also draw attention to some of the most important differences between the process theology tradition and Whitehead’s thought, arguing in favor of a Whiteheadian naturalism that is more or less independent of theological concerns. This book offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to Whitehead’s philosophy and is an essential resource for students and scholars interested in American philosophy, the philosophy of mathematics and physics, and issues associated with naturalism, explanation and radical empiricism.

The Emergence of a Scientific Culture

By Stephen Gaukroger
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Clarendon Press
  • Isbn : 9780191563911
  • Pages : 576
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 699
  • File Pdf: the-emergence-of-a-scientific-culture.pdf

Book Summary:

Why did science emerge in the West and how did scientific values come to be regarded as the yardstick for all other forms of knowledge? Stephen Gaukroger shows just how bitterly the cognitive and cultural standing of science was contested in its early development. Rejecting the traditional picture of secularization, he argues that science in the seventeenth century emerged not in opposition to religion but rather was in many respects driven by it. Moreover, science did not present a unified picture of nature but was an unstable field of different, often locally successful but just as often incompatible, programmes. To complicate matters, much depended on attempts to reshape the persona of the natural philosopher, and distinctive new notions of objectivity and impartiality were imported into natural philosophy, changing its character radically by redefining the qualities of its practitioners. The West's sense of itself, its relation to its past, and its sense of its future, have been profoundly altered since the seventeenth century, as cognitive values generally have gradually come to be shaped around scientific ones. Science has not merely brought a new set of such values to the task of understanding the world and our place in it, but rather has completely transformed the task, redefining the goals of enquiry. This distinctive feature of the development of a scientific culture in the West marks it out from other scientifically productive cultures. In The Emergence of a Scientific Culture, Stephen Gaukroger offers a detailed and comprehensive account of the formative stages of this development—-and one which challenges the received wisdom that science was seen to be self-evidently the correct path to knowledge and that the benefits of science were immediately obvious to the disinterested observer.