2005-08-02

Nanophysics: Coherence and Transport

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  • Full Title : Nanophysics: Coherence and Transport
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • ISBN Code : 9780080461243
  • Pages : 640
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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The developments of nanofabrication in the past years have enabled the design of electronic systems that exhibit spectacular signatures of quantum coherence. Nanofabricated quantum wires and dots containing a small number of electrons are ideal experimental playgrounds for probing electron-electron interactions and their interplay with disorder. Going down to even smaller scales, molecules such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes or hydrogen molecules can now be inserted in nanocircuits. Measurements of transport through a single chain of atoms have been performed as well. Much progress has also been made in the design and fabrication of superconducting and hybrid nanostructures, be they normal/superconductor or ferromagnetic/superconductor. Quantum coherence is then no longer that of individual electronic states, but rather that of a superconducting wavefunction of a macroscopic number of Cooper pairs condensed in the same quantum mechanical state. Beyond the study of linear response regime, the physics of non-equilibrium transport (including non-linear transport, rectification of a high frequency electric field as well as shot noise) has received much attention, with significant experimental and theoretical insights. All these quantities exhibit very specific signatures of the quantum nature of transport, which cannot be obtained from basic conductance measurements. Basic concepts and analytical tools needed to understand this new physics are presented in a series of theoretical fundamental courses, in parallel with more phenomenological ones where physics is discussed in a less formal way and illustrated by many experiments. · Electron-electron interactions in one-dimensional quantum transport · Coulomb Blockade and Kondo physics in quantum dots · Out of equilibrium noise and quantum transport · Andreev reflection and subgap nonlinear transport in hybrid N/S nanosructures. · Transport through atomic contacts · Solid state Q-bits · Written by leading experts in the field, both theorists and experimentalists


2017-02-16

Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics

By Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo
  • Full Title : Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics
  • Author : Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019108879X
  • Pages : 600
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This book contains lecture notes by world experts on one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in physics. Topological quantum phenomena are being uncovered at unprecedented rates in novel material systems. The consequences are far reaching, from the possibility of carrying currents and performing computations without dissipation of energy, to the possibility of realizing platforms for topological quantum computation.The pedagogical lectures contained in this book are an excellent introduction to this blooming field. The lecture notes are intended for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students in physics and mathematics who want to immerse in this exciting XXI century physics topic. This Les Houches Summer School presents an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its placement on the map of fundamental physics advancements. The School comprised a set of basic lectures (part 1) aimed at a pedagogical introduction of the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectures (part 2) covering individual topics at the forefront of today's research in condensed-matter physics.


2014-10-03

Quantum Foundations And Open Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes Of The Advanced School

By Nieuwenhuizen Theo M,Pombo Claudia,Furtado Claudio
  • Full Title : Quantum Foundations And Open Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes Of The Advanced School
  • Author : Nieuwenhuizen Theo M,Pombo Claudia,Furtado Claudio
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • ISBN Code : 9814616745
  • Pages : 612
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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The Advanced School on Quantum Foundations and Open Quantum Systems was an exceptional combination of lectures. These comprise lectures in standard physics and investigations on the foundations of quantum physics.On the one hand it included lectures on quantum information, quantum open systems, quantum transport and quantum solid state. On the other hand it included lectures on quantum measurement, models for elementary particles, sub-quantum structures and aspects on the philosophy and principles of quantum physics.The special program of this school offered a broad outlook on the current and near future fundamental research in theoretical physics.The lectures are at the level of PhD students.


2015-06-29

From Atomic to Mesoscale

By Svetlana A Malinovskaya,Irina Novikova
  • Full Title : From Atomic to Mesoscale
  • Author : Svetlana A Malinovskaya,Irina Novikova
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • ISBN Code : 9814678716
  • Pages : 272
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This volume presents the latest advancements and future developments of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and its vital role in modern sciences and technologies. The chapters are devoted to studies of a wide range of quantum systems, with an emphasis on understanding of quantum coherence and other quantum phenomena originated from light-matter interactions. The book intends to survey the current research landscape and to highlight major scientific trends in AMO physics as well as those interfacing with interdisciplinary sciences. The volume may be particularly useful for young researchers working on establishing their scientific interests and goals. Contents:Collective Phenomena and Long-Range Interactions in Ultracold Atoms and Molecules:Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Molecules (M L Wall, K R A Hazzard and A M Rey)Optical Manipulation of Light Scattering in Cold Atomic Rubidium (R G Olave, A L Win, K Kemp, S J Roof, S Balik, M D Havey, I M Sokolov and D V Kupriyanov)Seeing Spin Dynamics in Atomic Gases (D M Stamper-Kurn)Atom-like Coherent Solid State Systems:Precision Magnetic Sensing and Imaging Using NV-Diamond (R L Walsworth)Entanglement and Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots (A P Burgers, J R Schaibley and D G Steel)Coherent Nanophotonics and Plasmonics:Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials (M Y Shalaginov, S Bogdanov, V V Vorobyov, A S Lagutchev, A V Kildishev, A V Akimov, A Boltassevaand V M Shalaev)Linear Optical Properties of Periodic Hybrid Materials at Oblique Incidence: A Numerical Approach (A Blake and M Sukharev)Fundamental Physics:An Introduction to Boson-Sampling (B T Gard, K R Motes, J P Olson, P P Rohde and J P Dowling)New Approach to Quantum Amplification by Superradiant Emission of Radiation (G Shchedrin, Y Rostovtsev, X Zhang and M O Scully)Ultrafast Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields:Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses and Molecular Atto-Magnetism (A D Bandrauk and K-J Yuan)Many-Electron Response of Gas-Phase Fullerene Materials to Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Photons (H S Chakraborty and M Magrakvelidze)Ultracold Chemistry:Collisions and Reactions in Ultracold Gases (N Balakrishnan and J Hazra) Readership: For professional researchers as well as young academics in the field of Atomic, Molecular and Optical (AMO) physics. Key Features:The contributors for this volume are all internationally recognized experts in their fieldsThis book offers a unique overview of the state of current AMO physics, while outlining future directions. No comparable titles have been identified so far (by editors or by reviewers)All contributions include new unpublished research, and will be of interest for anyone pursuing the scientific investigations in the presented areasKeywords:Quantum Coherence;Amo;Atomic Physics;Quantum Control;Ultracold Atoms;Ultracold Molecules;Nv-diamonds;Quantum Dots;Quantum Magnetism;Nanophotonics;Plasmonics;Ultrafast Dynamics;Ultracold Chemistry


2016-04-19

Optical Properties of Photonic Structures

By Mikhail F. Limonov,Richard M. De La Rue
  • Full Title : Optical Properties of Photonic Structures
  • Author : Mikhail F. Limonov,Richard M. De La Rue
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN Code : 1439871922
  • Pages : 566
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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The collection of articles in this book offers a penetrating shaft into the still burgeoning subject of light propagation and localization in photonic crystals and disordered media. While the subject has its origins in physics, it has broad significance and applicability in disciplines such as engineering, chemistry, mathematics, and medicine. Unlike other branches of physics, where the phenomena under consideration require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, energy, or isolation from competing effects, the phenomena related to light localization survive under the most ordinary of conditions. This provides the science described in this book with broad applicability and vitality. However, the greatest challenge to the further development of this field is in the reliable and inexpensive synthesis of materials of the required composition, architecture and length scale, where the proper balance between order and disorder is realized. Similar challenges have been faced and overcome in fields such as semiconductor science and technology. The challenge of photonic crystal synthesis has inspired a variety of novel fabrication protocols such as self-assembly and optical interference lithography that offer much less expensive approaches than conventional semiconductor microlithography. Once these challenges are fully met, it is likely that light propagation and localization in photonic microstructures will be at the heart of a 21st-century revolution in science and technology. —From the Introduction, Sajeev John, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada One of the first books specifically focused on disorder in photonic structures, Optical Properties of Photonic Structures: Interplay of Order and Disorder explores how both order and disorder provide the key to the different regimes of light transport and to the systematic localization and trapping of light. Collecting contributions from leaders of research activity in the field, the book covers many important directions, methods, and approaches. It describes various one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures, including opals, aperiodic Fibonacci-type photonic structures, photonic amorphous structures, photonic glasses, Lévy glasses, and hypersonic, magnetophotonic, and plasmonic–photonic crystals with nanocavities, quantum dots, and lasing action. The book also addresses practical applications in areas such as optical communications, optical computing, laser surgery, and energy.


2019-09-17

Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect

By Francesco Tafuri
  • Full Title : Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect
  • Author : Francesco Tafuri
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • ISBN Code : 3030207269
  • Pages : 859
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the Josephson effect, a topic of never-ending interest in both fundamental and applied physics. In this volume, world-renowned experts present the unique aspects of the physics of the Josephson effect, resulting from the use of new materials, of hybrid architectures and from the possibility of realizing nanoscale junctions. These new experimental capabilities lead to systems where novel coherent phenomena and transport processes emerge. All this is of great relevance and impact, especially when combined with the didactic approach of the book. The reader will benefit from a general and modern view of coherent phenomena in weakly-coupled superconductors on a macroscopic scale. Topics that have been only recently discussed in specialized papers and in short reviews are described here for the first time and organized in a general framework. An important section of the book is also devoted to applications, with focus on long-term, future applications. In addition to a significant number of illustrations, the book includes numerous tables for comparative studies on technical aspects.


2016-09-10

Quantum-Enhanced Nonlinear Spectroscopy

By Frank Schlawin
  • Full Title : Quantum-Enhanced Nonlinear Spectroscopy
  • Author : Frank Schlawin
  • Publisher : Springer
  • ISBN Code : 3319443976
  • Pages : 259
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This thesis focuses on nonlinear spectroscopy from a quantum optics perspective. First, it provides a detailed introduction to nonlinear optical signals; starting from Glauber’s photon counting formalism, it establishes the diagrammatic formulation, which forms the backbone of nonlinear molecular spectroscopy. The main body of the thesis investigates the impact of quantum correlations in entangled photon states on two-photon transitions, with a particular focus on the time-energy uncertainty, which restricts the possible simultaneous time and frequency resolution in measurements. It found that this can be violated with entangled light for individual transitions. The thesis then presents simulations of possible experimental setups that could exploit this quantum advantage. The final chapter is devoted to an application of the rapidly growing field of multidimensional spectroscopy to trapped ion chains, where it is employed to investigate nonequilibrium properties in quantum simulations.


2009-01-06

Progress in Optics

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  • Full Title : Progress in Optics
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • ISBN Code : 0080879314
  • Pages : 360
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments. Backscattering and Anderson localization of light Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification Invisibility cloaks


2009-09-18

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics

By Noëlle Pottier
  • Full Title : Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics
  • Author : Noëlle Pottier
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0191574279
  • Pages : 491
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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While systems at equilibrium are treated in a unified manner through the partition function formalism, the statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems covers a large variety of situations that are often without apparent connection. This book proposes a unified perspective on the whole set of systems near equilibrium: it brings out the profound unity of the laws which govern them and gathers together a large number of results usually fragmented in the literature. The reader will find in this book a pedagogical account of the fundamental results: physical origins of irreversibility, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Boltzmann equation, linear response, Onsager relations, transport phenomena, Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The book's comprehensive organization makes it valuable both as a textbook about irreversible phenomena and as a reference book for researchers.


2018-03-23

Functional Surfaces in Biology III

By Stanislav N. Gorb,Elena V. Gorb
  • Full Title : Functional Surfaces in Biology III
  • Author : Stanislav N. Gorb,Elena V. Gorb
  • Publisher : Springer
  • ISBN Code : 3319741446
  • Pages : 268
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This book is devoted to the rapidly growing area of science dealing with structure and properties of biological surfaces in their relation to particular functions. This volume, written by a team of specialists from different disciplines, covers various biological surface functions: sensing, coloration, attachment, drag reduction, moisture harvesting, etc. Because biological surfaces have a virtually endless potential of technological ideas for the development of new materials and systems, inspirations from biology could also be interesting for a broad range of topics in surface engineering. This volume together with two previous volumes “Functional Surfaces in Biology” (vols. 1 & 2 published in 2009) taken together, present a good reference for a novice in the field. The book is intended for use by researchers who are active, or intend to become active, in the field. The appeal of this topic is expected to be broad, ranging from classical biology, biomechanics and physics to such applied fields as materials science and surface engineering.


2015-12-23

Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics

By Paolo Bettotti
  • Full Title : Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics
  • Author : Paolo Bettotti
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • ISBN Code : 9814613754
  • Pages : 442
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Photonics and electronics are endlessly converging into a single technology by exploiting the possibilities created by nanostructuring of materials and devices. It is expected that next-generation optoelectronic devices will show great improvements in terms of performance, flexibility, and energy consumption: the main limits of nanoelectronics will be overcome by using a photonics approach, while nanophotonics will become a mature technology, thanks to miniaturization strategies developed in microelectronics. Mastering such a complex subject requires a multidisciplinary approach and a solid knowledge of several topics. This book gives a broad overview of recent advances in several topical aspects of nanophotonics and nanoelectronics, keeping an eye on real applications of such technologies, and focuses on the possibilities created by advanced photon management strategies in optoelectronic devices. Starting from pure photonic systems, the book provides several examples in which the interaction between photonics and electronics is exploited to achieve faster, compact, and more efficient devices. A large number of figures and tables also support each chapter. This book constitutes a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and professionals working on the development of optoelectronics.


2013-12-21

Optics of Aperiodic Structures

By Luca Dal Negro
  • Full Title : Optics of Aperiodic Structures
  • Author : Luca Dal Negro
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • ISBN Code : 9814463094
  • Pages : 530
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This book presents state-of-the-art contributions from a number of leading experts that actively work worldwide in the rapidly growing, highly interdisciplinary, and fascinating fields of aperiodic optics and complex photonics. Edited by Luca Dal Negro, a prominent researcher in these areas of optical science, the book covers the fundamental, computational, and experimental aspects of deterministic aperiodic structures, as well as numerous device and engineering applications to dense optical filters, nanoplasmonics photovoltaics and technologies, optical sensing, light sources, and nonlinear optics.


2017-08-03

Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures

By Camille Ndebeka-Bandou,Francesca Carosella,Gérald Bastard
  • Full Title : Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures
  • Author : Camille Ndebeka-Bandou,Francesca Carosella,Gérald Bastard
  • Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company
  • ISBN Code : 1786343045
  • Pages : 448
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This book is an introduction to quantum states and of their scattering in semiconductor nanostructures. Written with exercises and detailed solutions, it is designed to enable readers to start modelling actual electron states and scattering in nanostructures. It first looks at practical aspects of quantum states and emphasises the variational and perturbation approaches. Following this there is analysis of quasi two-dimensional materials, including discussion of the eigenstates of nanostructures, scattering mechanisms and their numerical results. Focussing on practical applications, this book moves away from standard discourse on theory and provides students of physics, nanotechnology and materials science with the opportunity to fully understand the electronic properties of nanostructures. Contents:Practical Quantum Mechanics:Schrödinger EquationBound and Extended StatesApproximate MethodsLandau Quantisation of Electron Motion in Ideal Semiconductor Bulks and HeterostructuresThe Physics of Heterostructures:Background on HeterostructuresElectrons States in NanostructuresBeyond the Ideal WorldScreening at the Semi-Classical ApproximationResults for Static ScatterersResults for Electron-Phonon InteractionBeyond the Born ApproximationExercises Readership: Students of physics, nanoscience and materials science, professionals working with nanomaterials, and researchers.


2013-10-24

Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II

By David Carfi,Michel L. Lapidus,Erin P. J. Pearse,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen
  • Full Title : Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II
  • Author : David Carfi,Michel L. Lapidus,Erin P. J. Pearse,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen
  • Publisher : American Mathematical Soc.
  • ISBN Code : 0821891480
  • Pages : 372
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This volume contains the proceedings from three conferences: the PISRS 2011 International Conference on Analysis, Fractal Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Economics, held November 8-12, 2011 in Messina, Italy; the AMS Special Session on Fractal Geometry in Pure and Applied Mathematics, in memory of Benoît Mandelbrot, held January 4-7, 2012, in Boston, MA; and the AMS Special Session on Geometry and Analysis on Fractal Spaces, held March 3-4, 2012, in Honolulu, HI. Articles in this volume cover fractal geometry and various aspects of dynamical systems in applied mathematics and the applications to other sciences. Also included are articles discussing a variety of connections between these subjects and various areas of physics, engineering, computer science, technology, economics and finance, as well as of mathematics (including probability theory in relation with statistical physics and heat kernel estimates, geometric measure theory, partial differential equations in relation with condensed matter physics, global analysis on non-smooth spaces, the theory of billiards, harmonic analysis and spectral geometry). The companion volume (Contemporary Mathematics, Volume 600) focuses on the more mathematical aspects of fractal geometry and dynamical systems.


2015-10-14

Topological Insulators

By Gregory Tkachov
  • Full Title : Topological Insulators
  • Author : Gregory Tkachov
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • ISBN Code : 9814613266
  • Pages : 182
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This book is the result of dynamic developments that have occurred in condensed matter physics after the recent discovery of a new class of electronic materials: topological insulators. A topological insulator is a material that behaves as a band insulator in its interior, while acting as a metallic conductor at its surface. The surface current carriers in these systems have Dirac-like nature and are protected by an intrinsic topological order, which is of great interest for both fundamental research and emerging technologies, especially in the fields of electronics, spintronics, and quantum information. The realization of the application potential of topological insulators requires a comprehensive and deep understanding of transport processes in these novel materials. This book explores the origin of the protected Dirac-like states in topological insulators and gives an insight into some of their representative transport properties. These include the quantum spin–Hall effect, nonlocal edge transport, backscattering of helical edge and surface states, weak antilocalization, unconventional triplet p-wave superconductivity, topological bound states, and emergent Majorana fermions in Josephson junctions as well as superconducting Klein tunneling.


2018-11-28

Parity-time Symmetry and Its Applications

By Demetrios Christodoulides,Jianke Yang
  • Full Title : Parity-time Symmetry and Its Applications
  • Author : Demetrios Christodoulides,Jianke Yang
  • Publisher : Springer
  • ISBN Code : 9811312478
  • Pages : 579
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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This book offers a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental advances in linear and nonlinear parity-time-symmetric systems in various physical disciplines, and surveys the emerging applications of parity-time (PT) symmetry. PT symmetry originates from quantum mechanics, where if the Schrodinger operator satisfies the PT symmetry, then its spectrum can be all real. This concept was later introduced into optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, metamaterials, electric circuits, acoustics, mechanical systems and many other fields, where a judicious balancing of gain and loss constitutes a PT-symmetric system. Even though these systems are dissipative, they exhibit many signature properties of conservative systems, which make them mathematically and physically intriguing. Important PT-symmetry applications have also emerged. This book describes the latest advances of PT symmetry in a wide range of physical areas, with contributions from the leading experts. It is intended for researchers and graduate students to enter this research frontier, or use it as a reference book.


2020-06-15

Compendium On Electromagnetic Analysis - From Electrostatics To Photonics: Fundamentals And Applications For Physicists And Engineers (In 5 Volumes)

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  • Full Title : Compendium On Electromagnetic Analysis - From Electrostatics To Photonics: Fundamentals And Applications For Physicists And Engineers (In 5 Volumes)
  • Author :
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • ISBN Code : 9813270187
  • Pages : 2068
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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The five-volume set may serve as a comprehensive reference on electromagnetic analysis and its applications at all frequencies, from static fields to optics and photonics. The material includes micro- and nanomagnetics, the new generation of electric machines, renewable energy, hybrid vehicles, low-noise motors; antennas and microwave devices, plasmonics, metamaterials, lasers, and more.Written at a level accessible to both graduate students and engineers, Electromagnetic Analysis is a comprehensive reference, covering methods and applications at all frequencies (from statics to optical). Each volume contains pedagogical/tutorial material of high archival value as well as chapters on state-of-the-art developments.


2012-12-06

Quantum Mesoscopic Phenomena and Mesoscopic Devices in Microelectronics

By Igor O. Kulik,Recai Ellialtiogammalu
  • Full Title : Quantum Mesoscopic Phenomena and Mesoscopic Devices in Microelectronics
  • Author : Igor O. Kulik,Recai Ellialtiogammalu
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN Code : 9401143277
  • Pages : 499
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Quantum mechanical laws are well documented at the level of a single or a few atoms and are here extended to systems containing 102 to 1010 electrons - still much smaller than the usual macroscopic objects, but behaving in a manner similar to a single atom. Besides the purely theoretical interest, such systems pose a challenge to the achievement of the ultimate microelectronic applications. The present volume presents an up-to-date account of the physics, technology and expected applications of quantum effects in solid-state mesoscopic structures. Physical phenomena include the Aharonov-Bohm effect, persistent currents, Coulomb blockade and Coulomb oscillations in single electron devices, Andreev reflections and the Josephson effect in superconductor/normal/superconductor systems, shot noise suppression in microcontacts and contact resistance quantisation, and overall quantum coherence in mesoscopic and nanoscopic structures related to the emerging physics of quantum computation in the solid-state environment.