Dr. Math Introduces Geometry Book

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Dr. Math Introduces Geometry

By The Math Forum
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Isbn : 9780471677543
  • Pages : 192
  • Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Reads : 206
  • File Pdf: dr-math-introduces-geometry.pdf

Book Summary:

You, Too, Can Understand Geometry - Just Ask Dr. Math! Have you started studying geometry in math class? Do you get totally lost trying to find the perimeter of a rectangle or the circumference of a circle? Don't worry. Grasping the basics of geometry doesn't have to be as scary as it sounds. Dr. Math-the popular online math resource-is here to help! Students just like you have been turning to Dr. Math for years asking questions about math problems, and the math doctors at The Math Forum have helped them find the answers with lots of clear explanations and helpful hints. Now, with Dr. Math Introduces Geometry, you'll learn just what it takes to succeed in this subject. You'll find the answers to dozens of real questions from students who needed help understanding the basic concepts of geometry, from lines, rays, and angles to measuring three-dimensional objects and applying geometry in the real world. Pretty soon, everything from recognizing types of quadrilaterals to finding surface area to counting lines of symmetry will make sense. Plus, you'll get plenty of tips for working with tricky problems submitted by other kids who are just as confused as you are. You won't find a better introduction to the world and language of geometry anywhere!

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The second of three parts comprising Volume 54, the proceedings of the Summer Research Institute on Differential Geometry, held at the University of California, Los Angeles, July 1990 (ISBN for the set is 0-8218-1493-1). Among the subjects of Part 2 are gauge theory, symplectic geometry, complex ge

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
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  • File Pdf: digital-and-discrete-geometry.pdf

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  • File Pdf: transformational-plane-geometry.pdf

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This volume presents the theory of partial differential equations (PDEs) from a modern geometric point of view so that PDEs can be characterized by using either technique of differential geometry or algebraic geometry. This allows us to recognize the richness of the structure of PDEs. It presents, for the first time, a geometric theory of non-commutative (quantum) PDEs and gives a general application of this theory to quantum field theory and quantum supergravity. Contents:Algebraic GeometryDifferential Equations (PDEs)MechanicsContinuum MechanicsQuantum Field TheoryGeometry of Quantum PDEsReferencesIndex Readership: Mathematical physicists. keywords:Quantum PDEs;Global Geometric Theory of Green Functions;Canonical Quantization of PDEs;Non-Commutative PDEs;Quantum Manifold;Tunnel Effects

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  • File Pdf: geometry-ii.pdf

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
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  • Pages : 484
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  • File Pdf: analytic-hyperbolic-geometry.pdf

Book Summary:

' This is the first book on analytic hyperbolic geometry, fully analogous to analytic Euclidean geometry. Analytic hyperbolic geometry regulates relativistic mechanics just as analytic Euclidean geometry regulates classical mechanics. The book presents a novel gyrovector space approach to analytic hyperbolic geometry, fully analogous to the well-known vector space approach to Euclidean geometry. A gyrovector is a hyperbolic vector. Gyrovectors are equivalence classes of directed gyrosegments that add according to the gyroparallelogram law just as vectors are equivalence classes of directed segments that add according to the parallelogram law. In the resulting “gyrolanguage” of the book one attaches the prefix “gyro” to a classical term to mean the analogous term in hyperbolic geometry. The prefix stems from Thomas gyration, which is the mathematical abstraction of the relativistic effect known as Thomas precession. Gyrolanguage turns out to be the language one needs to articulate novel analogies that the classical and the modern in this book share. The scope of analytic hyperbolic geometry that the book presents is cross-disciplinary, involving nonassociative algebra, geometry and physics. As such, it is naturally compatible with the special theory of relativity and, particularly, with the nonassociativity of Einstein velocity addition law. Along with analogies with classical results that the book emphasizes, there are remarkable disanalogies as well. Thus, for instance, unlike Euclidean triangles, the sides of a hyperbolic triangle are uniquely determined by its hyperbolic angles. Elegant formulas for calculating the hyperbolic side-lengths of a hyperbolic triangle in terms of its hyperbolic angles are presented in the book. The book begins with the definition of gyrogroups, which is fully analogous to the definition of groups. Gyrogroups, both gyrocommutative and non-gyrocommutative, abound in group theory. Surprisingly, the seemingly structureless Einstein velocity addition of special relativity turns out to be a gyrocommutative gyrogroup operation. Introducing scalar multiplication, some gyrocommutative gyrogroups of gyrovectors become gyrovector spaces. The latter, in turn, form the setting for analytic hyperbolic geometry just as vector spaces form the setting for analytic Euclidean geometry. By hybrid techniques of differential geometry and gyrovector spaces, it is shown that Einstein (Möbius) gyrovector spaces form the setting for Beltrami-Klein (Poincaré) ball models of hyperbolic geometry. Finally, novel applications of Möbius gyrovector spaces in quantum computation, and of Einstein gyrovector spaces in special relativity, are presented. Contents: GyrogroupsGyrocommutative GyrogroupsGyrogroup ExtensionGyrovectors and CogyrovectorsGyrovector SpacesRudiments of Differential GeometryGyrotrigonometryBloch Gyrovector of Quantum ComputationSpecial Theory of Relativity: The Analytic Hyperbolic Geometric Viewpoint Readership: Undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and academics in geometry, algebra, mathematical physics, theoretical physics and astronomy. Keywords:Analytic Hyperbolic Geometry;Gyrogroup;Gyrovector Space;Hyperbolic Geometry;Relativistic Mass;Special RelativityKey Features:Develops an elegant conversion formula from the hyperbolic triangle hyperbolic angles to its hyperbolic side lengthsIntroduces hyperbolic vectors, called “gyrovectors", and demonstrates that Einstein velocity addition is nothing but a gyrovector addition in a gyrovector space just as Newton velocity addition is a vector addition in a vector spaceShows that Einstein's relativistic mass meshes extraordinarily well with analytic hyperbolic geometry, where it captures remarkable analogies with Newton's classical mass and the analytic Euclidean geometry of the center of momentumReviews:“This new book by Ungar is very well-written, with plenty of references and explanatory pictures. Almost all chapters include exercises which ensure that the book will reach a large audience from undergraduate and graduate students to researchers and academics in different areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. In this book, the author sets out his improved gyrotheory, capturing the curiosity of the reader with discernment, elegance and simplicity.”Mathematical Reviews “This book under review provides an efficient algebraic formalism for studying the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky, which underlies Einstein special relativity … It is of interest both to mathematicians, working in the field of geometry, and the physicists specialized in relativity or quantum computation theory … It is recommended to graduate students and researchers interested in the interrelations among non-associative algebra, hyperbolic and differential geometry, Einstein relativity theory and the quantum computation theory.”Journal of Geometry and Symmetry in Physics “This book represents an exposition of the author's single-handed creation, over the past 17 years, of an algebraic language in which both hyperbolic geometry and special relativity find an aesthetically pleasing formulation, very much like Euclidean geometry and Newtonian mechanics find them in the language of vector spaces.”Zentralblatt MATH '

Geometric Analysis and Applications to Quantum Field Theory

By Peter Bouwknegt,Siye Wu
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
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  • Pages : 207
  • Category : Mathematics
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Book Summary:

In the last decade there has been an extraordinary confluence of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics brought about by pioneering discoveries in geometry and analysis. The various chapters in this volume, treating the interface of geometric analysis and mathematical physics, represent current research interests. No suitable succinct account of the material is available elsewhere. Key topics include: * A self-contained derivation of the partition function of Chern- Simons gauge theory in the semiclassical approximation (D.H. Adams) * Algebraic and geometric aspects of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations in conformal field theory (P. Bouwknegt) * Application of the representation theory of loop groups to simple models in quantum field theory and to certain integrable systems (A.L. Carey and E. Langmann) * A study of variational methods in Hermitian geometry from the viewpoint of the critical points of action functionals together with physical backgrounds (A. Harris) * A review of monopoles in nonabelian gauge theories (M.K. Murray) * Exciting developments in quantum cohomology (Y. Ruan) * The physics origin of Seiberg-Witten equations in 4-manifold theory (S. Wu) Graduate students, mathematicians and mathematical physicists in the above-mentioned areas will benefit from the user-friendly introductory style of each chapter as well as the comprehensive bibliographies provided for each topic. Prerequisite knowledge is minimal since sufficient background material motivates each chapter.

First Steps in Differential Geometry

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Book Summary:

Differential geometry arguably offers the smoothest transition from the standard university mathematics sequence of the first four semesters in calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations to the higher levels of abstraction and proof encountered at the upper division by mathematics majors. Today it is possible to describe differential geometry as "the study of structures on the tangent space," and this text develops this point of view. This book, unlike other introductory texts in differential geometry, develops the architecture necessary to introduce symplectic and contact geometry alongside its Riemannian cousin. The main goal of this book is to bring the undergraduate student who already has a solid foundation in the standard mathematics curriculum into contact with the beauty of higher mathematics. In particular, the presentation here emphasizes the consequences of a definition and the careful use of examples and constructions in order to explore those consequences.

Algebra & Geometry

By Mark V. Lawson
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  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Isbn : 9781000402506
  • Pages : 424
  • Category : Mathematics
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  • File Pdf: algebra-geometry.pdf

Book Summary:

Algebra & Geometry: An Introduction to University Mathematics, Second Edition provides a bridge between high school and undergraduate mathematics courses on algebra and geometry. The author shows students how mathematics is more than a collection of methods by presenting important ideas and their historical origins throughout the text. He incorporates a hands-on approach to proofs and connects algebra and geometry to various applications. The text focuses on linear equations, polynomial equations, and quadratic forms. The first few chapters cover foundational topics, including the importance of proofs and a discussion of the properties commonly encountered when studying algebra. The remaining chapters form the mathematical core of the book. These chapters explain the solutions of different kinds of algebraic equations, the nature of the solutions, and the interplay between geometry and algebra. New to the second edition Several updated chapters, plus an all-new chapter discussing the construction of the real numbers by means of approximations by rational numbers Includes fifteen short ‘essays’ that are accessible to undergraduate readers, but which direct interested students to more advanced developments of the material Expanded references Contains chapter exercises with solutions provided online at www.routledge.com/9780367563035

The Geometry of Discrete Groups

By Alan F. Beardon
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9781461211464
  • Pages : 340
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 461
  • File Pdf: the-geometry-of-discrete-groups.pdf

Book Summary:

This text is intended to serve as an introduction to the geometry of the action of discrete groups of Mobius transformations. The subject matter has now been studied with changing points of emphasis for over a hundred years, the most recent developments being connected with the theory of 3-manifolds: see, for example, the papers of Poincare [77] and Thurston [101]. About 1940, the now well-known (but virtually unobtainable) Fenchel-Nielsen manuscript appeared. Sadly, the manuscript never appeared in print, and this more modest text attempts to display at least some of the beautiful geo metrical ideas to be found in that manuscript, as well as some more recent material. The text has been written with the conviction that geometrical explana tions are essential for a full understanding of the material and that however simple a matrix proof might seem, a geometric proof is almost certainly more profitable. Further, wherever possible, results should be stated in a form that is invariant under conjugation, thus making the intrinsic nature of the result more apparent. Despite the fact that the subject matter is concerned with groups of isometries of hyperbolic geometry, many publications rely on Euclidean estimates and geometry. However, the recent developments have again emphasized the need for hyperbolic geometry, and I have included a comprehensive chapter on analytical (not axiomatic) hyperbolic geometry. It is hoped that this chapter will serve as a "dictionary" offormulae in plane hyperbolic geometry and as such will be of interest and use in its own right.

Combinatorial Geometry and Its Algorithmic Applications

By János Pach,Micha Sharir,Mîkā Šārîr
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : American Mathematical Soc.
  • Isbn : 9780821846919
  • Pages : 235
  • Category : Mathematics
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  • File Pdf: combinatorial-geometry-and-its-algorithmic-applications.pdf

Book Summary:

This book, based on the authors' lecture series at a 2006 satellite meeting of the International Congress of Mathematicians, offers a comprehensive survey of core areas of combinatorial geometry. These lecture notes aptly describe both the history and the state of the art of these topics. These combinatorial techniques have found applications in areas of computer science ranging from graph drawing to frequency allocation in cellular networks.

Riemannian Geometry and Geometric Analysis

By Jürgen Jost
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9783662223857
  • Pages : 458
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 566
  • File Pdf: riemannian-geometry-and-geometric-analysis.pdf

Book Summary:

FROM REVIEWS OF THE FIRST EDITION "a very readable introduction to Riemannian geometry...it is most welcome...The book is made more interesting by the perspectives in various sections, where the author mentions the history and development of the material and provides the reader with references."-MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

Rings and Geometry

By R. Kaya,P. Plaumann,K. Strambach
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9789400954601
  • Pages : 568
  • Category : Mathematics
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  • File Pdf: rings-and-geometry.pdf

Book Summary:

When looking for applications of ring theory in geometry, one first thinks of algebraic geometry, which sometimes may even be interpreted as the concrete side of commutative algebra. However, this highly de veloped branch of mathematics has been dealt with in a variety of mono graphs, so that - in spite of its technical complexity - it can be regarded as relatively well accessible. While in the last 120 years algebraic geometry has again and again attracted concentrated interes- which right now has reached a peak once more - , the numerous other applications of ring theory in geometry have not been assembled in a textbook and are scattered in many papers throughout the literature, which makes it hard for them to emerge from the shadow of the brilliant theory of algebraic geometry. It is the aim of these proceedings to give a unifying presentation of those geometrical applications of ring theo~y outside of algebraic geometry, and to show that they offer a considerable wealth of beauti ful ideas, too. Furthermore it becomes apparent that there are natural connections to many branches of modern mathematics, e. g. to the theory of (algebraic) groups and of Jordan algebras, and to combinatorics. To make these remarks more precise, we will now give a description of the contents. In the first chapter, an approach towards a theory of non-commutative algebraic geometry is attempted from two different points of view.

Spherical Geometry and Its Applications

By Marshall A. Whittlesey
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Isbn : 9781000617542
  • Pages : 335
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 588
  • File Pdf: spherical-geometry-and-its-applications.pdf

Book Summary:

Spherical Geometry and Its Applications introduces spherical geometry and its practical applications in a mathematically rigorous form. The text can serve as a course in spherical geometry for mathematics majors. Readers from various academic backgrounds can comprehend various approaches to the subject. The book introduces an axiomatic system for spherical geometry and uses it to prove the main theorems of the subject. It also provides an alternate approach using quaternions. The author illustrates how a traditional axiomatic system for plane geometry can be modified to produce a different geometric world – but a geometric world that is no less real than the geometric world of the plane. Features: A well-rounded introduction to spherical geometry Provides several proofs of some theorems to appeal to larger audiences Presents principal applications: the study of the surface of the earth, the study of stars and planets in the sky, the study of three- and four-dimensional polyhedra, mappings of the sphere, and crystallography Many problems are based on propositions from the ancient text Sphaerica of Menelaus

Invariant Methods in Discrete and Computational Geometry

By Neil L. White
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9789401584029
  • Pages : 328
  • Category : Computers
  • Reads : 391
  • File Pdf: invariant-methods-in-discrete-and-computational-geometry.pdf

Book Summary:

Invariant, or coordinate-free methods provide a natural framework for many geometric questions. Invariant Methods in Discrete and Computational Geometry provides a basic introduction to several aspects of invariant theory, including the supersymmetric algebra, the Grassmann-Cayler algebra, and Chow forms. It also presents a number of current research papers on invariant theory and its applications to problems in geometry, such as automated theorem proving and computer vision. Audience: Researchers studying mathematics, computers and robotics.

Pythagorean-Hodograph Curves: Algebra and Geometry Inseparable

By Rida T Farouki
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9783540733980
  • Pages : 728
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 753
  • File Pdf: pythagorean-hodograph-curves.pdf

Book Summary:

By virtue of their special algebraic structures, Pythagorean-hodograph (PH) curves offer unique advantages for computer-aided design and manufacturing, robotics, motion control, path planning, computer graphics, animation, and related fields. This book offers a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the mathematical theory of PH curves, including algorithms for their construction and examples of their practical applications. It emphasizes the interplay of ideas from algebra and geometry and their historical origins and includes many figures, worked examples, and detailed algorithm descriptions.

Noncommutative Geometry and Particle Physics

By Walter D. van Suijlekom
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Isbn : 9789401791625
  • Pages : 237
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 978
  • File Pdf: noncommutative-geometry-and-particle-physics.pdf

Book Summary:

This book provides an introduction to noncommutative geometry and presents a number of its recent applications to particle physics. It is intended for graduate students in mathematics/theoretical physics who are new to the field of noncommutative geometry, as well as for researchers in mathematics/theoretical physics with an interest in the physical applications of noncommutative geometry. In the first part, we introduce the main concepts and techniques by studying finite noncommutative spaces, providing a “light” approach to noncommutative geometry. We then proceed with the general framework by defining and analyzing noncommutative spin manifolds and deriving some main results on them, such as the local index formula. In the second part, we show how noncommutative spin manifolds naturally give rise to gauge theories, applying this principle to specific examples. We subsequently geometrically derive abelian and non-abelian Yang-Mills gauge theories, and eventually the full Standard Model of particle physics, and conclude by explaining how noncommutative geometry might indicate how to proceed beyond the Standard Model.

Perspectives on the Teaching of Geometry for the 21st Century

By C. Mammana,V. Villani
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9789401152266
  • Pages : 353
  • Category : Education
  • Reads : 739
  • File Pdf: perspectives-on-the-teaching-of-geometry-for-the-21st-century.pdf

Book Summary:

In recent years geometry seems to have lost large parts of its former central position in mathematics teaching in most countries. However, new trends have begun to counteract this tendency. There is an increasing awareness that geometry plays a key role in mathematics and learning mathematics. Although geometry has been eclipsed in the mathematics curriculum, research in geometry has blossomed as new ideas have arisen from inside mathematics and other disciplines, including computer science. Due to reassessment of the role of geometry, mathematics educators and mathematicians face new challenges. In the present ICMI study, the whole spectrum of teaching and learning of geometry is analysed. Experts from all over the world took part in this study, which was conducted on the basis of recent international research, case studies, and reports on actual school practice. This book will be of particular interest to mathematics educators and mathematicians who are involved in the teaching of geometry at all educational levels, as well as to researchers in mathematics education.

Riemannian Geometry and Geometric Analysis

By Jürgen Jost
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9783540288916
  • Pages : 566
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 519
  • File Pdf: riemannian-geometry-and-geometric-analysis.pdf

Book Summary:

Offering some of the topics of contemporary mathematical research, this fourth edition includes a systematic introduction to Kahler geometry and the presentation of additional techniques from geometric analysis.

The Geometric Vein

By C. Davis,B. Grünbaum,F.A. Sherk
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9781461256489
  • Pages : 598
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 261
  • File Pdf: the-geometric-vein.pdf

Book Summary:

Geometry has been defined as that part of mathematics which makes appeal to the sense of sight; but this definition is thrown in doubt by the existence of great geometers who were blind or nearly so, such as Leonhard Euler. Sometimes it seems that geometric methods in analysis, so-called, consist in having recourse to notions outside those apparently relevant, so that geometry must be the joining of unlike strands; but then what shall we say of the importance of axiomatic programmes in geometry, where reference to notions outside a restricted reper tory is banned? Whatever its definition, geometry clearly has been more than the sum of its results, more than the consequences of some few axiom sets. It has been a major current in mathematics, with a distinctive approach and a distinc ti v e spirit. A current, furthermore, which has not been constant. In the 1930s, after a period of pervasive prominence, it appeared to be in decline, even passe. These same years were those in which H. S. M. Coxeter was beginning his scientific work. Undeterred by the unfashionability of geometry, Coxeter pursued it with devotion and inspiration. By the 1950s he appeared to the broader mathematical world as a consummate practitioner of a peculiar, out-of-the-way art. Today there is no longer anything that out-of-the-way about it. Coxeter has contributed to, exemplified, we could almost say presided over an unanticipated and dra matic revival of geometry.

Surveys on Discrete and Computational Geometry

By Jacob E. Goodman
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : American Mathematical Soc.
  • Isbn : 9780821842393
  • Pages : 556
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 671
  • File Pdf: surveys-on-discrete-and-computational-geometry.pdf

Book Summary:

This volume contains nineteen survey papers describing the state of current research in discrete and computational geometry as well as a set of open problems presented at the 2006 AMS-IMS-SIAM Summer Research Conference Discrete and Computational Geometry--Twenty Years Later, held in Snowbird, Utah, in June 2006. Topics surveyed include metric graph theory, lattice polytopes, the combinatorial complexity of unions of geometric objects, line and pseudoline arrangements, algorithmic semialgebraic geometry, persistent homology, unfolding polyhedra, pseudo-triangulations, nonlinear computational geometry, $k$-sets, and the computational complexity of convex bodies.

Math for Real Life

By Jim Libby
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : McFarland
  • Isbn : 9781476626758
  • Pages : 212
  • Category : Education
  • Reads : 848
  • File Pdf: math-for-real-life.pdf

Book Summary:

“Where are we ever going to use this?” Every high school math student has asked this question. Often teachers themselves aren’t sure how to respond. One answer is that higher mathematics learned in high school will be essential to learning yet more at the college level. A more satisfactory answer calls for an awareness of how math is applied in many specific areas. Written primarily for teachers, this book presents hundreds of practical applications for mathematics—from baseball statistics to the theory of relativity—that can be understood by anyone with a knowledge of high school algebra, geometry and trigonometry.