Although settler colonialism is a deeply entrenched structural problem, Indigenous peoples have always resisted it and sought to protect their land, sovereignty, and treaties. Some settlers have aimed to support Indigenous peoples in these struggles. This book examines what happens when settlers engage with and attempt to transform settler colonial systems. What does ‘decolonizing’ action look like? What roles can settlers play? What challenges, complexities, and barriers arise? And what opportunities and possibilities emerge? The authors emphasize the need for settlers to develop long-term relationships of accountability with Indigenous peoples and the land, participate in meaningful dialogue, and respect Indigenous laws and jurisdiction. Writing from multiple disciplinary lenses, and focusing on diverse research settings, from Turtle Island (North America) to Palestine, the authors show that transforming settler colonial relations and consciousness is an ongoing, iterative, and unsettling process that occurs through social justice-focused action, critical self-reflection, and dynamic-yet-committed relationships with Indigenous peoples. This book was originally published as a special issue of Settler Colonial Studies.